Water Pollution and its Effects


Water Pollution and its effects

Water is one of the most important resources or blessings on earth. About two-third part of this planet is made up of water and our body also contains 76 percent of water. The importance of water can be explained through it. As it is the most essential element in our growth and in other things as well, we should take care of this resource and keep it nice and clean. But the tragedy is we are polluting our water in various ways. Today, if you observe any river, canal or pond near you, you can easily observe the water in them is contaminated or polluted which is very harmful to us and as well as water living beings.

What is Water Pollution

When the water of water bodies like canals, rivers, and oceans is contaminated with the pollutants, chemicals, and waste asa result of human activities, it is called water pollution. These waste products sometimes float over the surface of water, dissolves in it and also lie on the bed of any water body or absorbed by it.

This contaminated water is harmful to aquatic species and also when it is absorbed by the bed of water body it is added to that water which is used in our daily life like drinking and cleaning etc. Thus, many viruses and diseases came into being.

Causes of Water Pollution

Some of the main causes that are responsible for water pollution are

  1. Domestic Waste
  2. Industrial Waste
  3. Pesticides
  4. Fertilizers

Domestic Waste

The waste collected by the housing societies or of any cities is discharged into river or in an ocean. This is one of the main causes of water pollution. This waste contains many detergents and chemicals that float on the water and also contaminate water by dissolving in it.

Industrial Waste

Some of the factories, industries, and refineries discharge their waste, by-products, and chemicals directly into nearby canal or river without cleaning or treating it. These by-products are very harmful to the aquatic species and they also affect the soil of the area in which the water of specific canal or river is flowing.


Pesticides are the chemicals that are used to kill weeds, fungicides, and a variety of insects. The demolition of these pesticides is not completed safely, and its waste is also discharged in water bodies. So, one can understand by himself that chemicals that are used to kill fungus and insects, if discharge into river then what harm it can bring to aquatic species and human beings. 


The fertilizer we used for the growth of chemicals are added to water and then discharged in the water bodies. Fertilizers are also very dangerous chemicals that can bring harm to fishes and also humans.

Types of Water Pollution

There are many types of water pollution some of themain types are described below

Surface water pollution

The natural water in the water bodies is known as surface water. This water is contaminated when domestic or industrial waste comes in contact with it.

Sea Pollution

Some of the pollutants are directly discharged into the sea. But the main discharge of pollutants is discharged by means of a river. Moreover, oil spills are another big cause of sea pollution too.

Groundwater Pollution

The main cause of groundwater pollution is the use of pesticides, fertilizers, and other chemicals that are added to the soil and absorbed by it. These chemicals are then added with the groundwater and become the reason of its contamination. Surface water pollution can also be the reason for groundwater pollution as it is absorbed by the bed of the water bodies.

Effects of Water pollution 

Water pollution has many harmful effects on the life of living beings. Some of dominant effects are described below.


One of the most harmful effects of water pollution is the diseases that come with it. Water is widely used for drinking purposes among all human beings. If one is drinking polluted water, he can get seriously ill most probably. Drinking polluted water can cause typhoid, cholera, hepatitis and many other diseases too.

Death of Aquatic Species

When the water in the water bodies such as a river, ponds, and oceans is contaminated with the pollutants or by-products, it becomes a great danger for aquatic species. The water animals which are living in the affected areas die or are seriously disturbed by water pollution. Moreover, the production of algae due to water pollution in water bodies is decreasing the quantity of oxygen from water resulting harm and danger for water species.

Unhealthy Food

Water pollution is affecting the quality of food as well. The aquatic species that we use as food are grown in contaminated water are thus now not as health as before. Moreover, polluted water is used for agriculture products too, thus making land food unhealthy too.

Water Pollution Diseases

Contaminated water is responsible for many types of diseases like dysentery, arsenicosis, polio, trachoma, typhoid, cholera, diarrhea, malaria, and lead poisoning.  Some of the most prominent diseases caused by contaminated water are described below.


This is one of the most common diseases caused by drinking contaminated water. According to WHO approximately 20k to 140k people die due to this disease. The symptom of this disease is vomiting or headache, and fatigue.


Diarrhea is another most common disease caused by using contaminated water. In this disease, the bacteria and viruses in the contaminated water affect the digestive system of human body. The symptoms for this are loose dungs or stools that cause dehydration and results in death if not treated properly.


In this disease, the nervous system of the human body is affected. The symptoms for this are high fever and fatigue and t lead to paralysis.

How to prevent Water pollution

  1. We should use less amount of detergents and only use phosphate-free detergents.
  2. We should not dispose of our household chemicals and by-products down the sink
  3. You should avoid the disposal of tissues and other plastic disposals in our toilets. 
  4. We should not dispose of garbage directly into the water.
  5. We should lessen the use of pesticides and other chemicals.
  6. The waste of industries should be treated first before discharging it into the river body.
  7. The water with fertilizers should also be treated first before discharging it into any water body.


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