The urinary system of human body is also called renal system or urinary tract. It mainly consists of ureters, urethra, bladder, and kidneys. The urinary system removes waste of body, control electrolytes, and metabolites levels, and regulate blood volume and pressure. The urinary system excretes the urine of the body. Kidneys filter the blood and form urine. The urine then reaches at bladder after passing through ureters. Then urine is stored in the bladder before it excreted through urethra during urination. The urinary system of male and females are quite similar, except the length of urethra. The average discharge of urine from human body is 800-2000 ml, but this amount can vary according to average fluid intake.
Working of Urinary System
After absorbing all the nutrients from the intake of all the food and fluids our body keeps energy which is needed and left waste which is called urea in the bowel and blood of the human body. The urinary system of the body excretes this urea from human body and also helps to keep minerals and water of body in balance. After all the proteins are absorbed urea is carried out to kidneys. Here urine is separated from other things. There are also other important functions of kidney like controlling blood pressure etc. Kidneys also check acid-base stability. After this urine is stored in bladder until it is evacuated through urethra.
Functions of Urinary System
Principal functions of the urinary system of human body are
- Regulate blood volume and composition (e.g. sodium, potassium, and calcium)
- Contributes to the production of red blood cells by the kidney.
- Regulate pH homeostasis of the blood.
- Helps synthesize calcitriol the (active form of Vitamin D).
- Regulate blood pressure.
- Stores waste products (mainly urea and uric acid) before it and other products are removed from the body.
Parts of Urinary System
The human body consists of two kidneys. These organs have purplish-brown color. They are present under the ribs and center of back. Their principal functions are
- They eliminate waste and chemicals from the human body.
- Stable the fluids of human body.
- Stable many different electrolytes.
- They deliver hormones to control the blood pressure of the human body.
- Control red blood cell production by releasing hormones.
- Controls the amount of calcium and phosphorus in the human body that are important for bone health
Nephrons are the filtering units that remove urea from the blood in the kidneys. These nephrons contain glomerulus (ball formed of tiny blood capillaries) and a tiny tube which is called renal tubule.The other waste products and urea form urine that is passed through the nephrons and below renal tubules of the kidney of human body.
The urine is passed from the kidney to the bladder through these narrow tubes. The tightening and relaxing of the muscles in the walls of ureters force the urine to move below, far from kidneys and near to the bladder. If ureters didn’t function rightly and urine in the ureters did not move forward, it can cause kidney infection. Some amount of urine is evacuated regularly from the ureters to the bladder of hum body after every 10 to 15 seconds.
The bladder is the hollow organ placed under the lower belly. It is triangle-shaped organ. It stands with the help of ligaments that are fixed with pelvic bones and other organs too. The walls of bladder expand and contract to store urine. Their expansion and contraction cause the urine to excretes through urethra. An average person can storea range of urine is approximately 2 cups for the time of 2 to 5 hours.
Two sphincter muscles
These muscles are circular, and they are close around the bladder opening so that the urine can’t be leaked.
Nerves in the Bladder
These nerves alarm the human body when to excretes urine from the bladder.
This tube-shaped organ lets urine excretes from the human body. Bladder gets the signalfrom the human brain and tight muscles to excretes the urine out of the bladder. Sphincter muscles get the signal from the brain at the same time to excrete the urine from bladder through urethra. When this complete procedure is done correctly, normal urination occurs.