Discovery, Settlements and Independence:
This roughly two and a half centuries old nation got independence from Great Britain on July 4, 1776 and emerged as superpower in the world after the tragic downfall of Russia at the hands of Afghan fighters. However, in one way or the other, cold war still continues between the two most influential countries of the world which often seem to be in an open row over the international affairs. Concerning the Europeans’ arrival in the United States (also known as the US, the USA, the United States of America, America, or simply, the States), it was discovered in 1492 by Christopher Columbus, who was an Italian navigator, explorer and colonizer. As the four cross Atlantic voyages of Columbus were sponsored and patronized by the Spanish Catholic Monarchs, his discovery of the New World and the establishment of permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola initiated the colonization of the land by Spain. Similarly, the English, French and other European colonizers started inhabiting various island archipelagos and mainland areas of new land with promising prospects. Here it is worth mentioning that the lands of northern and southern Americas were first ever inhabited by the Asians, approximately 13,000 years ago or earlier than that.
Recognition and Constitution:
Though the Americans declared their independence as early as 1776, the American Revolutionary War, fought between Great Britain and the United States and her allies, continued till 1783 when the latter was officially recognized by the former through the Treaty of Paris. Likewise, the other combatant nations like the Dutch Republic, Spain and France recognized the independence of the country through the agreements of the Peace of Paris in the same year. However, the constitution of the country could not be adopted till September 17, 1787, which was later on ratified by the conventions of eleven states in 1788, and it ultimately went into effect on March 4, 1789. Till this time, the system of the government was run by the Articles of Confederation which went into effect in 1777 and were replaced by the United States Constitution after about eleven years.
American Civil War and Reconstruction:
Immediately after securing independence from the European rulers, the juvenile nation encountered an intense internal issue of slavery. The states that were initially entering the Union were alternatively free and the slave states. As a consequence of mutual tension between the states, there broke out a civil war in the country in 1860, which became gradually widespread. They had contradiction over their representativeness in the Senate and the House of Representatives and were confronting over the issues of slavery, whether it should be expanded or restricted. On the other hand, the US federal government was against the formation of the Confederate States of America and armed forces were called for intervention. In this deadliest ever conflict of the American History, well over half a million citizens had to do away with their lives.
After five years of deadly fighting, the Union emerged as victorious in 1865 and three amendments were made in the constitution which prohibited slavery and allowed the four million African slaves to become proper US citizens and attain the right to vote. Though these events marked the onset of Reconstruction Era, the social abuses like racial segregation and vigilante violence couldn’t be uprooted completely. For the thorough elimination of these destructive and anti-social practices, the patriotic leaders ran various movements at the national level and established peace in the society.
World Wars and the Great Depression:
The history has also witnessed the active participation of America in the two world wars, the World War I and the World War II, fought between 1914 to 1918 and 1939 to 1944, respectively. In the first of these wars, the US joined the allied forces against the Central Powers in 1917. After the end of this war, the following decade of 1920 witnessed widespread growth and national prosperity. However, with the end of the Roaring Twenties, there ensued the decade of the Great Depression in 1930s. The victory of the US and its allies in the Second World War, paved the way for the country for direct interference in the international politics. In this post war era, there was also witnessed profound industrial growth and mega scale technological revolution. In her struggle to become super power in the world, the country finally achieved the set goal in the last decade of 20th century with the ultimate defeat of the ex-superpower, Russia.
Painful Facts about the US:
America always claims to be the sole defender and propagator of human rights in the global scenario, but many bitter facts reveal that she is only concerned with her interests and inflicts brutality on the humanity in general for the ultimate fulfillment of these motives. Ernest Hemingway, a Nobel Prize winning American author and journalist, was severely mentally disturbed by his country’s offensive against humanity in the world wars. Here follows a brief description of some of these painstaking truths about the superpower of the world:
Japan versus the US:
It is a sad and painful fact about this North American nation that throughout its two and a half centuries old history, there didn’t come a single year, month or even a day when the armed forces weren’t found fighting with one or the other nation of the world. During this bloody tenure, often there have been committed war crimes against the innocent humanity, such as the nuclear attack on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in World War II.
Attitude towards Pakistan:
The American government often committed betrayal with its sincere, close and long term allies, like Pakistan. Pakistan’s active participation in American war against terror has ruined the economy of this prosperous South Asian nation. Along with the loss of the millions of innocent lives, the peace has utterly been destroyed as foreign funded anti-state elements have established sound foundations. Besides utterly violating the laws and sovereignty of her faithful friend, the US has often directly attacked the Pakistani troops who were already defending the American interests.
Reality of Iraq Invasion:
Blaming the presence of nuclear warheads in Iraq, the power-addicted nation went against the international laws and resolutions of the United Nations and waged war without any logically justifiable grounds. The only consequence was the utter devastation of the landscape and peaceful life of the Middle Eastern country, and no evidence of the nuclear weapons could ever be traced. Like Pakistan, the Iraqi American backed government has inspired anti-state elements which are always struggling to destroy the inside peace and security.
Outcome of War against Afghanistan:
In the bloody United States history, the next chapter is that of invasion of Afghanistan, which also marked the violation of international laws and turning a deaf ear to the peacemaking efforts of the global community. After 14 years of continuous US war in Afghanistan, the result is that not only the germ of terrorism has deeply penetrated the region, but also the former is willing to accept the defeat and go back.