First Martial Law In Pakistan 1958


Pakistan came into being on 14 August 1947. It was a miracle that Pakistan came into being and remains stable because of the importance of its geographical area that distributed it in two halves; one in east and other in west. Between these two halves there is a second country who is the bitter enemy of Pakistan. Today, 65 years has been passed and out of these 65 years Army rules over the country for 32 years. Pakistan had major problems from its beginning.

Major Problems of Pakistan:

  • Economical instability
  • Geographical distance
  • Refugee’s settlement
  • Political uncertainty
  • Empty treasure
  • Lack of good governance
  • Eastern border Risk

Pakistan History:

When Pakistan came into being there was no constitution of Pakistan. Some amendments had been made in 1935 Act of subcontinent and started operations of the country. There was a need of strong leadership that run country’s affair well. In 1948 Kashmir issue had been raised and Quaid e Azam wished to help in Kashmir. But at that time General Gracy, who was the army chief of Pakistan’s army denied the order of Quaid and said he will resign from his post. He was the first disobedience of Army to the Government that provided the bases of bureaucracy. Ghulam Mohammad and Chaudhry Mohammad Ali tried to wish the establishment of bureaucratic government. In 1950 the secret messages sent to U.S Presidential field and Lahore U.S consulate showed that Ghulam Sikander Mirza and General Ayub had secret relationships with them. U.S believed that in Pakistan, Military establishment plays a big role in favor of U.S.

There were four military regimes in the history of Pakistan. In 1951, Rawalpindi Conspiracy case happened, in which Major general Akbar Khan and some others, who were tried to overthrow the Liaquat Ali’s khan Government. But government knew this conspiracy and punished those persons. On 16 October 1951 Liaquat Ali Khan was murdered at gathering in park and after that Malik Ghulam Mohammad was the new Governor General and Khawja Nazi mud Din was the second prime minister of Pakistan. Malik Ghulam was not the right person for Pakistan’s leadership and he was the first person who raise the distance between East and West Pakistan by offering ‘’One Unit Formula”.

Mother of Martial:

Later on Ahmadis and Qadiani’s sectarianism incident was held and police failed to provide the security to people and General Azam Khan who was the chief army officer at that time firstly imposed the Martial law in Pakistan. This martial law calls the “Mother of Martial Laws”. In 1954, General Ayub Khan was inducted as the minister of defense and cabinet give two extensions in General Ayub Khan Services. From these two extensions General Ayub khan remained in Pakistan Army for a long time. In 1956 Chaudhry Mohammad Ali made the first constitution for Pakistan in which all rights were reserved to Pakistan’s president. The post of governor was replaced by president ship. But on 17 October 1958, President of Pakistan Major General Sikandar Mirza imposed Martial Law in the country and appointed the General Ayub Khan as a Chief Martial Law administrator and Sikandar Mirza commanded the armed forces.

First Martial Law:

Some People thought that martial law impose by the general Ayub Khan but it totally wrong because it was the idea of Sikandar Mirza but at the end he was itself displaced. On 18 October 1958, the first address of General Ayub Khan was transmitted from The Radio Pakistan and Martial law had imposed for 10 years. There were many improvements and developments in General Ayub Khan’s regime. That’s why we said that his regime was the golden period of Pakistan political history has best reforms like

Ayub’s Reforms:

  • Prevention of illicit Weapons
  • Gold Smugglers were caught
  • Several Ministers were arrested in corruption charges.
  • Prevent adulteration in food items.
  • Import licensing restrictions on the sale and purchase.
  • Establish Industrial Units.


And there were many other reforms that held in general Ayub khan period. But by all these good and bad things we can’t say that dictatorship is far better than Democratic government. Because Army’s task is that they protect the borders rather than intervene in government affairs.


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