Abul Kalam Azad Biography | Abul Kalam Azad Life History


Abul-Kalam Azad was a great scholar and politician. We are providing you the valuable information of Abul-Kalam Azad Biography in the following lines.

His actual name was Muhaiudin Ahmad and Azad was his Pseudonym. Abul-Kalam Azad was born on 11th November 1888 in Macca. He was younger than all his siblings. He had 5 siblings in total. Azad was given the historical name of Feroz Bakht.

He was an Indian scholar, one of senior leader of Indian National Congress during movement for independence, and after India get independence he was chosen as first ministry of education of India. He was a man of high moral integrity. He was commonly known as Maulana Azad. Maulana as the honor and Azad was his pen name. Abu Kalam was one of the most influential activists when India was fighting for freedom. He established the Indian Institute of technology and till now National Educational day is celebrated in India on his birthday in memory of his contribution to education.He also received the honor of “Bharat Ratna” which is India’s highest civilian honor after his death in 1992.

Early Life and Family

Abu Kalam Azad was born on 11 November 1888 in Mecca, which was a part of Ottoman Empire at that time. His father was a Muslim scholar and his mother was an Arabic housewife. His father’s name was Maulana Khairuddin who was a Muslim from Bengal while his mother was the daughter of an Arabian. It is also believed that Maulana Azad was the descendant of some renowned scholars of Islam.  This family moved to Calcutta while he was young. At very young age Maulana was married to Zuleikha Begum. He was only 13 years old at that time. 


Maulana received his early Islamic education at home from his father. Maulana learned many languages like Persian, Urdu, and Persian. He was also educated in geometry, mathematics, and philosophy.  At young age, Maulana was influenced by the ideology of Sir SyedAhmad Khan that if Muslims want progress and solution to all their problems, they have to learn English language. He learned English language without the knowledge of his father.

Literary Work

In 1899 Maulana Azad started writing the first time for a magazine called “Narang-e-Alam”. He established a newspaper named Al-Hilah in 1912 but this was banned in 1914. After this he establish new journal named Al-Balagh.


The most important literary work by Maulana Azad is Ghubar-e-Khatir written while he was a prisoner of Britain in a fort of Ahmednagar. This book was mainly written in Urdu language but there were parts of Arabic and Persian language too as they were the mother languages of Maulana Abu Kalam. This book is mainly a group of letters. But these letters contain data related to many complex and important issues like God’s existence etc.

Here are some literary books of Maulana Abu Kalam Azad:

  • Umm-al-Kitab Part I 
  • Umm-al-Kitab Part II 
  • Qaule-Faisal 
  • Ramazan-ul-Mubarak Aur Teen Kisam Ke Loog 
  • Insaniyat Maut Kay Darwazay Per 
  • Islam Aur Pakistan 
  • Khutbat E Bahawalpur 
  • Quran Ka Qanoon Arooj Aur Zawaal 
  • Dars-e-Wafa 
  • Ghubar-e-Khatir

Pre-independence Political Career

Maulana Ab Kalam Azad as a social activist was part of the Khilafat movement of Turkey in 1920. He joined the Non-Cooperation movement of Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi because Khilafat issue was also an important part of their manifesto. During this movement Maulana was inspired by the ideology of Mahatma Gandhi.

Indian National Congress

By inspiring with the ideology of Mahatma Gandhi, in January 1920 he joined Indian National Congress. He also inscribed the Jawahar Lal Nehru report in 1928. Although, many Muslim leaders opposed and deny this report. He was against the idea of Muslim’s separate nation and opposed the ideology of Pakistan. Once his uttered words on this issue are

” Full eleven centuries have passed by since then. Islam has now as great a claim on the soil of India as Hinduism. If Hinduism has been the religion of the people here for several thousands of years, Islam also has been their religion for a thousand years. Just as a Hindu can say with pride that he is an Indian and follows Hinduism, so also we can say with equal pride that we are Indians and follow Islam. I shall enlarge this orbit still further. The Indian Christian is equally entitled to say with pride that he is an Indian and is following a religion of India, namely Christianity.”He leads many movements in the country for freedom from the British and uttered many speeches too.   He was arrested in 1942 alongside many other Congress leaders and was imprisoned for 4 years in Ahmedabad fort where he wrote his famous book Ghubar-e-Khatir. After that Maulana joined Constituent Assembly Elections with Indian National Congress and also lead the conference for independence to British Raj.

Post-Independence Political Career

After the independence, Maulana Azad takes responsibility to take the care of Muslims of India. He visited the violence-affected areas and establish refugee camps to ensure the supply of food and other things to victims. He became the first minister of education in India. He bought many reforms and done some very good work for education in India. Indian Institute of Technology is also his establishment.


Maulana Abu Kalam Azad one of the most influential leaders in the independence of India died on 22 February 1958. May he rest in peace.

“I am proud of being an Indian. I am part of the indivisible unity that is Indian nationality. I am indispensable to this noble edifice and without me this splendid structure is incomplete. I am an essential element, which has gone to build India. I can never surrender this claim.”


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