What Is a Migraine?
Migraine is a word derived from Greek letter “HemiKrania”, “Hemi meaning Half” and “Krania meaning Head “.
Migraine is also knOwn as the HemiCrania, megrim, migraine headache, and sick headache.
A migraine is a neurological condition, which means a severe, disabling headache, usually affecting only one side of the head and often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, photophobia and visual disturbances.
Different Scientists Have Defined It Differently but Depicting the Same Sense.
1995, ROBERT A.DAVIDOFF said
“syncope is estimated to occur in bouts of headaches in approximate 5% of adult patients with a migraine”
2005, MICHAEL H. said
“A migraine is characterized by unilateral, often pulsating headaches worsened by physical activity, and associated with nausea, photophobia, and phonophobia.”
2006, Joshua W.Devine s said
“A migraine is a common and disabling neurological disorder with substantial variation in the frequency, severity, and duration of headaches. “
Migraine and Its Victims
Around the globe, approximately 15% of the human race suffers from a thus disease. It onsets at puberty and it affects the people of age ranging from !5 to 55 yrs. These are pulsating in nature and lasts from two to 72 hrs.
People suffering from these pulsating headaches are more prone to sensory disturbances. A migraine affects the middle-aged group of people. People facing such headaches are familiar with its stimulatory factors and its risk factors. But causes of a migraine somewhat differ from the risk factors.
Causes of Migraine
The causes of a migraine may be chemical changes, genetical factors, and psychological causes could also be there.
Main and exact causes of a migraine are not fully known. But it is said that the tremulant changes in the transfer of neurotransmitters between the different parts of the brain cells may lead to a migraine. Such tremulant changes may make the persons susceptible to a migraine.
Mostly migraine affects females, it is known that after puberty, the ratio becomes 3:1 in females and males respectively. A migraine may travel within the families if it is genetical or if there is a history of any patient in the family.
A psychological condition such as depression, anxiety, stress, hormonal disturbances may also behave as the trigger points to an onset migraine.
These trigger points not only include psychological conditions but also physical and external factors such as diet, fatigue, muscular cramping, weather etc. These o points affect a minor population.
Most of the population report of suffering from the trigger point up to 24 before the onset of a migraine. The strength and significance of these trigger points are not clear as that of the mechanism of a migraine.
Mechanism of Migraine?
The mechanism of the pulsating pain which occurs during a migraine is not fully known. It still remains vivid. The problem may be either in the CNS [central nervous system] or in the PNS [peripheral nervous system].
Most researchers say support the idea of dysfunctioning of the CNS and the rest says that it is due to the problems in the PNS.
The arteries involved are the arteries of DURA MATTER, PIA MATTER and most important are the extracranial arteries. Extracranial Arteries go down vasodilations and impact in the dysfunctioning. Prevention is much more important than medication as it is well said: “A stitch in time saves nine.”
Preventive Measures to Avoid a Migraine
To lessen the frequency, intensity, and the duration pain of a migraine are the main objectives of the preventive measures. These measures may also include an enhancer In the therapeutic effect.
People, who cannot tolerate the pain of the acute and chronic attacks of a migraine are recommended preventive measures.
These measures include the first line of medications, supplements, and lifestyle alterations. These measures are given to the patients at the initial stages of a migraine. In the progressive stages, medication is required to treat the patient.
Medication for a Migraine
If required output is not obtained by the preventions, then medication becomes a necessity. The patient is prescribed medication according to the condition and degree of the disease.
Following medications are recommended according to the stage and the condition of the disease.
- Divalproex/sodium valproate
- Propranolol, and
- Metoprolol is the drugs used for the treatment given for the first line use.
- Botox is used for treating chronic migraine.
- Frovatriptan is effective for the treatment of a menstrual migraine. Guidelines are also prescribed along with this medication.
If these medications do not give the required result, alternative therapies are used then.
Alternative therapies used for a migraine include a wide variety of treatments. Some are described as below.
Massage Manipulation along with some pain killers can do a lot in getting rid of this disease.